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Quantifying shallow fault zone structure and characteristics is critical for accurately modeling the complex mechanical behavior of earthquakes as energy moves within faults from depth. We examine macro- to microstructures, mineralogy, and properties from drill core analyses of fault-related rocks in the steeply plunging ALT-B2 geotechnical borehole (total depth of 493 m) across the San Gabriel Fault zone, California. We use macroscopic drill core and outcrop-sample analyses, core-based damage estimates, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses to determine the fault zone structure, deformation mechanisms, and alteration patterns of exhumed deformed rocks formed in a section of the fault that slipped 5-12 million years ago, with evidence for some Quaternary slip. The fault consists of two principal slip zones composed of cohesive cataclasite, ultracataclasite, and intact clay-rich, highly foliated gouge within upper and lower damage zones 60 m and 50 m thick. The upper 6.5 m thick principal slip zone separates Mendenhall Gneiss and Josephine Granodiorite, and a lower 11 m thick principal slip is enclosed within the Josephine Granodiorite. Microstructures record overprinted brittle fractures, cohesive cataclasites, veins, sheared clay-rich rocks, and folded foliated and carbonate-rich horizons in the damage zones. Carbonate veins are common in the lower fault zone, and alteration and mineralization assemblages consist of clays, epidote, calcite, zeolites, and chloritic minerals. These data show that shallow portions of the fault experienced fluid-rock interactions that led to alteration, mineralization, and brittle and semi-brittle deformation that led to the formation of damage zones and narrow principal slip zones that are continuous down-dip and along strike.
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